Mike Caulfield has a thoughtful blog post whose title alone is a nailing formula:

“Media Literacy Is About Where To Spend Your Trust. But You Have To Spend It Somewhere.”

This may seem to contradict Stephen Downes’s advice excerpted here:

“First rule: Trust no one. […] Don’t even trust me. Read this article sceptically. […] Did we see a tiger in the bush, or just black and orange stripes? It’s easy to jump to conclusions through bias and prejudice.

Take your time. Don’t jump to conclusions; evaluate the evidence.”

Tiger and magnifier

Picture credit (tiger): Bjørn Christian Tørrissen, CC-BY-SA

I think there is no contradiction, just another example of how our limited time and resources prohibit too much double-checking.

I like Caulfield’s term of ‘spending’ because this hints at the idea that trust is not (only) an idealistic concept from removed dreamers or verbose humanities scholars, but it can even be an economic idea: in our knowledge economy, it saves resources if I can trust someone’s information or judgment, rather than fetching external evidence. Or if a superior trusts me (rather than trying to check everything on his own).

And there is so much more connected to the idea of trust.

Early social bookmarking and blogging networks helped not only guarantee the validity but also the relevance of the recommended posts — before the cloaca of the ‘stream’ generated such a mess that everyone is now dependant on the platforms’ patronizing algorithms, whether we trust them or not.

Also the topic of my last post (see also Jenny Mackness’ covering), pedagogies of harmony and hope, which derived from a discussion on pedagogy of small and slow, can be related to trust which is, IMHO, an important ingredient of the described settings.

And finally, trust is distinctively human and cannot be learned by robots, since it grows from the early gaze ‘conversations’ where a baby learns about the world through the eyes of their mother (see here).

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Expectations make the difference

In a discussion about the ‘Pedagogy of Harmony’, Stephen Downes and Laura Ritchie addressed something that highlights the importance of expectations.

“I think that learning is the process of adjusting our expectations to align with experience so we are not taken by surprise and thrown off balance by what comes next.” (Downes, December 13, 2017)

Depending on what usually comes next, the very same event may be experienced in very different ways.

This can also be beautifully demonstrated with musical chords. While Laura (as a music expert) has much more to say about this and draws much wider connections, for me (as an absolute amateur) already a small example was very impressing:

When a chord with a ‘nonharmonic tone’ is played out of context, it sounds awful, but when we hear it as a ‘passing tone’ or as a ‘neighbor tone’, we don’t notice the dissonance — because we expect that it will immediately be resolved.



Thanks Laura for the explanation and for the link to Tim Poulin’s video whose intervals I used for my smaller example.

The role of expectations was even more fascinating for me since Downes’s recent writing about the brain as a ‘prediction machine’ (here and here) and the short-term memory’s role of making temporal perceptions similar to spatial perceptions (here and here).


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Stephen Downes’s big article “Consciousness” is an incredibly rich resource. I have not yet understood everything, but I need to organize my notes. Inspired by Heylighen’s glossary which can be organized into a nice picture, I tried to arrange some quotations (and a bit of glue text in italics) in a similar way, see below.

The greatest takeaway so far was the explanation of the mysterious ‘suddenness’ through recognition, see the last entry of my list.


“Consciousness seems to be mysterious to most people.” (01)

Absolute qualitative difference:

It is difficult “‘to explain away an absolute qualitative difference — such as that between third-person physical events and first-person consciousness'” (19, quoting Hart) This contributes to the mysteriousnness.

First person vantage:

“what might be called the ‘first person vantage‘ is pretty much an irreducible. It is not something I derive or infer from other things; it is something of which I have an immediate awareness. … ‘willing to deny … the actual existence, of the first-person vantage.’ … seems to fly in the face of our everyday experience.” (28) This difference from a Third Person view seems to be an Absolute qualitative difference.


An outstanding example of the First Person Vantage is the following: “There is a notion of what it feels like to perceive something. The phenomenon of pain offers a great example. When we are in pain, it hurts, but when we observe someone else in pain, no matter how closely, it does not hurt (though the activity of mirror neurons may make us flinch a little). So clearly there is something different about the subjective experience of pain that is not observable as the physical experience of pain. These subjective experiences … are known as qualia.” (13)

The ‘other’:

“There are two senses of ‘intentionality'” … ” All of these focus on the relation between ourselves and the ‘other’.” (15) Which is an Absolute qualitative difference


“First, there is intensionality, which is the ‘aboutness’ of our thoughts.” (15). “the ‘aboutness‘ of something from the inner or mental state seems to require, or at the very least, presuppose, an outer or external state” (23) “All of these [senses of intentionality] focus on the relation between ourselves and the ‘other’“. (15)

Outside vs. Inside:

First person vantage and interactions with ‘The other’ have accustomed us to a seemingly absolute qualitative difference between Outside and Inside.

Objective pull:

“The supposition that mental states (or representations) are governed by the same principles as physical states is what Pylyshyn calls ‘the objective pull‘, ‘the tendency to view the cognitive process in terms of properties of the represented objects'” (17).
I think, a similar tendency or habituation may lead us to try and view our consciousness too much like an outside object, with our usual approach of distancing, isolating, fixing, aboutness and representation (which McGilchrist calls the ’emissary’) ?


“Second, there is intentionality, which is understood in the common sense of our ‘intending‘ to do something.” (23) “All of these [senses of intentionality] focus on the relation between ourselves and the ‘other’“. (15)

Distinctively human

Whatdistinguishes humans from rocks, plants and lizards” (19), and is it an Absolute qualitative difference ?

Free will:

“In philosophy, and in particular in the context of the problem of consciousness, it [intentionality] has to do with the idea of free will versus determinism.” (15) Free will also seems like distinctively human.


“Humans speak – and think – in language. This might be one of the more remarkable stages of evolution. It is certainly one that distinguishes humans from rocks, plants and lizards.” (21)


“‘For Dennett, language must have arisen out of social practices of communication, rooted in basic animal gestures and sounds in an initially accidental association with features of the environment. Only afterward could these elements have become words, spreading and combining and developing into complex structures of reference.'” (21, quoting Hart)


“[S]emantics has to do with what we call the ‘aboutness‘ of a word, sentence or sequence of sentences”. (23) Words may refer to the outside, physical world.

Physical vs. Non-physical:

References (words, thoughts) to the outside physical world let the Outside vs. Inside difference appear as a difference between a Physical and a Non-physical realm. Not everybody realizes that “there is not, in human nature, a separate mental realm that reasons abstractly about the physical realm.” (06)


Concepts are often viewed as a non-physical representation of something in the physical world. But: “Our thoughts about objects are not representations of the external world, they are not inferred from experience, they are sensations of the external world (which J.J. Gibson would call direct perception), and are experienced directly.” (03)


(Ideas expressed by words)


“There’s a large body of thought that views not just ideas but other content such as ‘concepts‘ and ‘information’ as irreducibly and necessarily non-physical.” (25) And a concept is viewed as a non-physical representation of something from the physical world. “In truth, there is nothing more mysterious about ideas, concepts and information than there is about categories (and, arguably, ideas, concepts and information are no more than the modern instantiation of categories).” (25)


“We [humans] didn’t suddenly come into being, consciousness didn’t suddenly come into being, and nor either does an idea in our head suddenly come into being.” (11) “The argument that there is some mystical non-natural aspect to languages is rapidly being proven false in the domain of natural language processing today.” (22) But the appearance of human competencies, language and ideas seems sudden and mystical. Like an “‘evolutionary saltation between pre-linguistic and linguistic abilities'” (21, quoting Hart) , like “evolutionary short cuts such as an innate capacity for language” (21) , like a “‘gap’ in evolutionary history” (11) , like “‘a discontinuity'” “‘between mere accidental associations and intentional signs'” (24, quoting Hart).

Recognition and Emergence:

“There are two ways of talking about ’emergent results’ … One way is to think of it as an outcome. … The other way of thinking of emergent is to see it as a pattern. Mess around with some ingredients and eventually they take the form of something you recognize as a chocolate cake. Or evolve from one form of biological life to another to another and eventually you end up with something you recognize as a rabbit. That’s what I think Dennett means. It’s important to understand this distinction, I think, because it helps us understand the ‘suddenness’ of the emergence of language (or consciousness, or any of the other phenomena we are discussing). When you are manipulating a pattern of entities, order may ‘suddenly’ appear out of chaos, but what changed suddenly was not the pattern of entities but rather our perception of them.” (12)

The numbers refer to the sections of the article:

01 Consciousness
11 Suddenness
15 Intentionality Again
17 Rationality
19 Absolute Qualitative Difference
21 Language
22 Grammatical Constraints and Powers
23 Semantics, Again
24 Conventions and Physicality
25 Memes
28 The First-Person Vantage

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Reflecting or objectives?

In the final week of the #OpenEdMOOC, I learned some connections that I had not been aware of: How openness is also related to learning analytics and algorithms. I had been familiar with the idea that algorithms must be transparent (mainly via K. Zweig and her and I participated in the ‘data donation’ that took place before our federal election in September and attempted to get this transparency. But I had not thought about how companies would be tempted to abuse student data when they are trying to sell their ‘secret sauce’ of learning — although I had been skeptical against such recipes before.

At least now, this MOOC paid off for me, and it was the first one after a long time that I did not drop out before the last week. So I want to share what I noticed about my own learning and motivation and reluctance.

There were elements that motivated me to reflect and engage, and there were elements that put me off. The latter ones often included a task, or an objective, or the big final project, and I was surprised about myself how often the edX platform with its rigid goal-directed framing, increased my reluctance to ‘obey’. For example, the ‘prompts’, the ‘due dates’, the ‘next’ button, the ‘activities’, and in particular the size of the ‘project’: a 1 hour lesson. (I did not mind writing the three little essays in CCK08 despite I was not a for-credit learner because this felt like just the right size for voluntary engagement.)

I don’t doubt that such tight pacing, or ‘lock-step’ walkthrough, across a wide field of content might be useful for some at-risk learners. But I think many adult learners do not like such a tight prescriptive style, and for workplace learning such formal structures are even more unpopular.

But even worse: I noticed that for me, such MOOC ‘objectives’ (“Detail how…”, “Describe how…”) actually inhibit reflections in the sense of: What struck me as susprising or salient or resonating?. Because, for the latter, a ‘broad vigilant attention’ is needed (sorry for borrowing once again from McGilchrist), while the guiding objectives switch off this kind of attention and turn over to a ‘narrow focus’ kind of attention, to follow the tip of the teacher’s pointer stick, so to speak. So, the well-meant suggestions for ‘activity’ may just put off from reflective activity — and maybe this is why reflecting is so unpopular among pressed students?

Image: adapted from Distant Shores Media/Sweet Publishing (under CC-BY-SA) and Rodin (Public Domain).

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What counts as effectiveness?

Week 5 of #OpenEdMOOC is about “Research on OER Impact and Effectiveness”. Certainly, OER adoption would somewhat increase if this research could prove that OERs do function equally well as commercial textbooks. To prove this, the research would have to copy the goals and measures from the traditional expectations that people have. I think there is a danger, then, that such expectations focus too much on how easily stuff can be ingested — a Nuremberg Funnel would be the ideal exchange value for the many dollars of a commercial textbook, wouldn’t it?

But such a measure of effectiveness would be questionable. In my own discipline, math, we have the saying: “A king’s road to mathematics does not exist.” There are, instead, two completely different goals. One is to learn how to apply the rules for the necessary calculations that you may have to carry out in later life. The other one is to learn mathematical thinking. If you focus on making the former as easy as possible (which is a legitimate goal), it is less probable that mathematical thinking emerges. For example, if you always have perfect pictures, visualisations and simulations in your textbook media, you will memorize the concepts and procedures quicker, but you won’t develop the ability to visualize difficult relationships on your own, i.e., if the abstract is made less abstract for you, you won’t learn from it how to cope with new abstract things.

To repeat an older metaphor: If we compare learning to carrying a load upstairs to the attic storage, there are two distinct goals. One is that the load should be stored up there, and the other is to work out one’s muscles. If it is only necessary that the stuff is accumulated up there in our brain, a ‘lift’ would be a welcome optimization.

Picture: ‘Attic storage’ by Flickr user adriane_l CC-BY

So, if measuring the ‘effectiveness’ is mainly about knowledge content and about storing it safely away (in a compressed way, i.e. in isolated chunks that are typical for ‘left-brained’ thinking), it will be very unbalanced.

Measuring OERs, by contrast, offers the opportunity to try out and define new criteria. An obvious new affordance is that you practice your mental ‘muscles‘ more if you have to find your stuff on the web, by navigating and traversing the very connections that ‘are’ the knowledge. But there is much more to research of distributed learning, and much of what I wrote 9 years ago in week 12 of CCK08, does still apply.

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Finding or creating OERs

Week 4 of OpenEdMOOC is about Creating, Finding, and Using Open Educational Resources. I don’t plan do fulfill the task of delivering a 1 hour lecture using OERs, but I was curious how much I would be able to find and how much I would need to create by myself. I was surprised how easy it was to find things.  This is the short message of this post.

If you are interested in a little example from the History of Data Communication, read on.

I have long thought that one day I should create a little graphic, perhaps even an animation, about the OSI 7 layers model, because whenever I saw such a graphic on the web, I was frustrated that it did not emphasize the few aspects that I found fascinating when we built prototype OSI networks.

The basic idea of the services is very simple: Think of two 7-story buildings. In the left-hand one, on the 7th floor, someone wants to send a message to their peer on the 7th floor of the other building. For this purpose, he or she just turns to their aides on the floor below to get this done, without need to think about how all the lower 6 floors of all buildings will collectively delivery that service. The aides on floor 6, in turn, use the services of the all the lower 5 floors in just the same way, and so on.

Now all graphical descriptions that I had seen on the web, enumerated the seven services one after the other, in a loveless way, as if it was a bothersome obligation, such that the listener (if he was not yet asleep) found himself wondering: now what is the difference between transport layer (4) and network layer (3) whose descriptions sounded pretty much the same? (Or likewise, between TCP and IP?) Graphics that left out any 3-floor buildings in between, did not make clear the relaying and routing function of layer 3 and the end-to-end function of layer 4.

Today, the first OER that I found was sufficiently emphasizing both sorts of stacks. I think this is good news.

Source: lecture 1, slide 18, from MIT OCW, CC-BY-NC-SA.

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Working memory

The short-term memory (or working memory) is a device with wonderful capabilities, and it is a pity that it is often seen as just a bothersome pre-stage of the aspired long-term memory.

It plays a great role in processing both temporal and spatial perceptions. Baddeley’s model contains, among others, the “phonological loop” (audio over time) and the “visuo-spatial sketchpad”. And these dimensions are closely related:

  • Vision is not exactly like a photographic snapshot at a specific point in time. Rather, our eyes cover only a small area of our viewport at a time (like a torch flashing for short moments to light up a single spot in front of us us). As Nick Sousanis put it, they are “dancing and darting”, and we need to fill in all the rest of the picture from our memory, to connect the “disconnected snapshots” and make the view complete (“Unflattening”, p. 90, with a reference to E. Pelaprat and M. Cole.)

Photo by Flickr user stormcab, CC-BY-NC-SA

Photo by Flickr user stormcab, CC BY-NC-SA

  • A well-known study showing the increased hippocampus brain region of London taxi drivers, is often used to demonstrate their increased spatial sense of orientation. But a taxi route through London is also a temporal, sequential performance.

Now, the spatial and temporal functions may be not only be interrelated. Stephen Downes now expressed the idea that they are indeed similar:

“we perceive objects in time in the same way we perceive objects in space.” And “what about persistence across time? […] how do we distinguish between something that is fleeting and ephemeral and something that is (more or less) object-permanent? Enter working memory.”

This is a plausible idea, and it is fascinating, in particular in the light of McGilchrist’s account of isolating (spatially) and fixing (temporally) and of how similarly they are done by what he calls the emissary.

Downes then applies his new idea to the Cognitive Load Theory. This theory, which is often used in a ‘folk theory’ way, does not only remind us that the working memory is limited (to the famous 7 +- 2 ‘chunks’ of objects), but it also has a tendency to argue against broad presentations (simultaneous, rich) such as multimedial ones, and in favor for longer, slower, sequential approaches. But Downes suggests that

“cognitive load isn’t really a measure of the number of objects we are presented, but the length of time it takes to present the objects.”

Perhaps the perceived ‘load’ is greater when it takes longer before we are able to connect the sequential objects? Such that the number of unconnected objects causes the pain? This would be rather the opposite of what the Cognitive Load Theory suggests: that the integration of multiple items (e.g. visual and verbal) means effort and load. As I understand it, this effort is posited as a given.

(BTW There is a similar, posited effort that bugs me, in the theory of “split attention” by Chandler and Sweller. It would mean that there is increased effort to ‘dart’ one’s eyes into the upper right corner of my think tool (an offloaded ‘visuo-spatial sketchpad’). But this totally contradicts my experience, and it probably ignores that a saccadic eye motion (as shown in the picture above) is different from an intentional search for an item on a viewport. But this is another story.)

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‘Text’-book ?

I am no longer on a campus and won’t do the evangelism task of OpenEdMOOC week 3. However, I will at least think about what would be the most urgent cases to address.

There is a wide range of cases for open access, from the one extreme where a publisher just steps in between author and readers and demands money for no service, right through to cases where a large work is assembled through the coordination of many authors including perpetual improvements and enhancements. Textbooks often fall into the latter category, and they are explicitly excluded from the barrier regulations limiting copyright in favor of science and education in Germany.

An important occasion to copy from a textbook is when it contains a great instructional graphic. (Despite the English term ‘text’-book suggests that the text is more important; but in German it is called the equivalent of ‘teach-book’.)

From J. M. Flagg’s famous Uncle Sam poster,

An image says more than 1000 words, and the careful selection of what to show and how to highlight the salient features, is certainly a great intellectual merit. Which deserves credit. But what is protected by copyright is not this idea (at least over here) but merely the ‘work’.

So, what if we take the idea for the picture and draw a new picture, modelled after the antetype of the given one? (Of course not just by following all contours through a sandwich paper or foil.) And then attribute the creator of the original image? According to my legal understanding (which is, of course, not professional) this should comply with the requirements that the work is commercially protected while the idea needs scholarly attribution and credit.

But it is not easy to do such drawings. I tried to redraw some outline of J. M. Flagg’s famous Uncle Sam picture, and miserably failed. (On this occasion I learned that also Flaggs copied the idea from a British precursor).

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The trap of copyright

I liked Wiley’s description of the current copyright situation as a trap (“it can feel really trapping”, 8.24′). Much of what sounds intuitively reasonable is prohibited when a copy of knowledge is treated as economic ‘property’ despite it just doesn’t fit this category in many ways (e.g. the copy is no longer a scarce value, and you can’t inspect it before purchase, you cannot return it and ‘unknow’ it, and so on).

Photo: Trap by Flickr user aydun cc-by

In practice, many try to ignore this trap. For example, when they use the ‘work’ of a textbook image in their course, they often confuse quotation rights with work use rights: if they don’t “critically engage with” the quoted part, they don’t qualify for the former kind of right. Which is meant to apply to an idea which is usually not protected against exploitation but to be tracked for credit and validity. By ignoring this, they won’t notice just how much the trap impedes their teaching even behind a Moodle wall.

Others try to argue ideologically or emotionally, by equating all IP: the rights of a small painter (who makes a living with his works) to the work of a tenured person who writes their books “on their own time” — which nobody dares to critically distinguish from his total time outside the classroom.

But most authors seem to put up with the trap. The prestigious journal is dictator, and they have learned (during their many years as adjunct slaves) that resistance is futile? Wiley has great responses to such kind of senior faculty:

“the only people tying us to the old system is us.”


“science advances one funeral at a time.”


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OpenEdMOOC Test

Testing as recommended on this page:

Course  > Week 1: Why Open Matters  > Getting Ready for the Course  > Course Activities Overview

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